Aztecs, Incas, and Toltecs

Chapter 10

The Americas on the Event of Attack

I. Advantages

A. By 1500, Americas densely booming by Indians – misnomer – Columbus/Indies

1 . Term has meaning only when utilized to apply to non-Indians

B. Mesoamerica and Andean heartland

1 . Imperial declares in place once Europe happens

2 . Couple of areas inspired by two main centers

3. Areas that designed independently

2. Postclassic Mesoamerica

A. Advantages

1 . Toltecs/Aztecs replace Mayas of 8th century CE

a. By simply 15th century Aztecs created extensive empire – war, religion, provincial

2 . Drop of Mayans – Teotihuacan

a. Nomads from North come down

b. Toltec Traditions – 968 established capital Tula

1 . Sedentary/agrarian lenders with militaristic ethic

2 . Cult of sacrifice/war

several. Aztecs found Toltecs because givers of civilization

B. The Toltec Heritage

1 ) Leader Topilitzin followed Quetzalcoatl – feathered serpent

installment payments on your Empire spread over much of central Mexico

three or more. 1000 Conquered Chichen Itza – Mayans under control of Toltecs

5. Toltec effect northward

a. Trade turquoise with American Southwest

m. How far – to Mississippi/Ohio – debatable evidence

1 . Stepped temples – Monk's Mound

installment payments on your Ritual sacrifice

3. art

4. Social stratification

a few. Large metropolis – Cahokia could take care of 30, 500 people

C. The Aztec Rise to Power – eagle with serpent on cactus

1 ) Geography – aquatic environment – chinampas

a. Aztecs/Mexicas won control of lake

n. Nomadic people or gardening culture

2 . Political structure – centralized city with tributary city-states

3. Armed forces – challenging warriors/fanatic followers of religion

four. 1428 come about as independent power

Deb. The Aztec Social Agreement

1 . Subject peoples

a. Pay homage, surrender royaume, military services

b. Full civil power/god on earth

2 . Stratified contemporary society

a. Histories rewritten

three or more. Human sacrifice – conspiracy of armed forces class offering war captives as eschew

E. Religious beliefs and the Ideology of Conquest

1 . Integrated features via past Mesoamerican religions

a. Little difference between regarding gods and natural universe

b. Deities – fireplace, rain, water, corn, heavens, sun – pantheon

1 ) Gods of fertility/agriculture

installment payments on your Creator deities

3. Rivalry and sacrifice

c. Feminine form for a lot of gods

2 . Yearly festivals/ceremonies

a. Extensive calendar

several. Sacrifice - to energize the sun god – needed nutrients of human being blood

a. Types and frequency/degree transformed with Aztecs – lent from Toltec

b. religious conviction or political control

4. Faith based questions – afterlife, very good life, perform gods exist

5. Artwork has flowers/birds/song and bloodstream

F. Tenochtitlan: The Foundation of Heaven

1 . Metropois – central sector of palaces/whitewashed temples

installment payments on your Adobe stone residential districts

3. Larger houses for nobility

5. Zoos, gardens for california king

5. Geographically connected to island by four causeways

six. Calpulli dominated neighborhoods

G. Feeding those: The Economy in the Empire

1 . Mass human population needed to be given

a. Tribute

b. Irrigated agriculture – chinampas – floating destinations

1 . twenty, 000 quadrat

2 . Substantial crop yields – 4x a year – corn/maize

installment payments on your Trade

a. Regular times to market

w. Barter or cacao beans/gold for forex

c. Pochteca – lengthy distance control

3. State controlled distribution of homage

a. Generally redistributed to nobility

III. Aztec Culture in Move

A. Extending Social Gulf

1 . Existence based on calpulli (neighborhood) groupings

a. Ruled by council of family heads

installment payments on your Nobility originate from heads of calpullis

3. Military frontrunners based on achievement in acquiring captives

a. Ritual warfare – outfits

4. As society grew, widening interpersonal disparity – no longer egalitarian (hmmm…where have got I seen this style before? )

a. Scribes, artisans, healers between cowboys and nobility

5. But…competition...

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